“If we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord, so that alive or dead, we belong to the Lord.”
“We want to make sure you do not grieve like other people who have no hope.”
[1 Thessalonians 4:13]
At the death of a Christian, whose life of faith was begun in the waters of Baptism and strengthened at the Eucharistic table, the Church intercedes on behalf of the deceased because of its confident belief that death is not the end, nor does it break the bonds forged in life. The Church also ministers to the sorrowing and consoles them in the funeral rites with the comforting Word of God and the Sacrament of the Eucharist.
In every celebration for the dead, the Church attaches great importance to the reading of the Word of God. The biblical texts proclaim the story of God’s love and fidelity, reminding us of God’s design for the world in which suffering and death will relinquish their hold on all whom God has called his own. A careful selection and use of readings from Scripture will provide the family and the community with an opportunity to hear God speak to them in their needs, sorrows, fears and hopes.
The Catholic funeral rite is divided into several stations, or parts, each with its own purpose. For this reason we recommend following the complete structure and making use of each station.
I. The Vigil Service
At the vigil, the Christian community keeps watch with the family in prayer to the God of mercy and finds strength in Christ’s presence. The Vigil Service usually takes place during the period of visitation and viewing at the funeral home. It is a time to remember the life of the deceased and to commend him/her to God. In prayer we ask God to console us in our grief and give us strength to support one another.
The Vigil Service can take the form of a Service of the Word with readings from Sacred Scripture accompanied by reflection and prayers. The clergy and the funeral director can assist in planning such service.
It is most appropriate, when family and friends are gathered together for visitation, to offer time for recalling the life of the deceased. For this reason, eulogies, words of remembrance, or tributes are encouraged to be done at the funeral home during visitation or at the Vigil Service.
II. The Funeral Liturgy
The funeral liturgy is the central liturgical celebration of the Christian community for the deceased. When one of its members dies, the Church encourages the celebration of the funeral liturgy at a Mass. When Mass cannot be celebrated, a funeral liturgy outside Mass can be celebrated at the church or in the funeral home.
At the funeral liturgy, the Church gathers with the family and friends of the deceased to give praise and thanks to God for Christ’s victory over sin and death, to commend the deceased to God’s tender mercy and compassion, and to seek strength in the proclamation of the Paschal Mystery. The funeral liturgy, therefore, is an act of worship, and not merely an expression of grief.
III. Rite of Committal
(Burial or Interment)
The Rite of Committal, the conclusion of the funeral rite, is the final act of the community of faith in caring for the body of its deceased member. It should normally be celebrated at the place of committal, that is, beside the open grave or place of interment. In committing the body to its resting place, the community expresses the hope that, with all those who have gone before us marked with the sign of faith, the deceased awaits the glory of the resurrection. The Rite of Committal is an expression of the communion that exists between the Church on earth and the Church in heaven: the deceased passes with the farewell prayers of the community of believers into the welcoming company of those who need faith no longer, but see God face-to-face.
The Church continues to prefer the practice of burying the bodies of the deceased. Nevertheless, cremation is not prohibited, unless it was chosen for reasons contrary to Christian doctrine. When cremation of the body has been chosen, the ashes of the faithful must be laid to rest in a sacred place, that is, in a cemetery or, in certain cases, in a church or an area, which has been set aside for this purpose, and so dedicated by the bishop or his delegate.
Diocesan Policy re Eulogies
A brief homily based on the readings is always given after the gospel reading at the funeral liturgy but there is never a eulogy.
The homily should have a narrative style. At a funeral, there is storytelling to be done – a real person’s story – not on its own, but in relation to God. Attentive to the grief of those present, the homilist should also help the members of the assembly to understand the mystery of God’s love and the mystery of Jesus’ victorious death and resurrection were present in the life and death of the deceased and that these mysteries are active in their lives as well. Through the homily, members of the family and community should receive consolation and strength to face the death of one of their members with a hope nourished by the saving word of God.
A eulogy is a certain kind of rhetoric or public speaking, focused on the deceased person, with the intention of praising him or her. In this set oration there may be an implication that the praise is exaggerated or even untrue.
A homily, on the other hand, is to be a discourse within the context of a worship service which invites the assembly to consider and interpret its life and experience in light of a biblical text or texts which have been proclaimed.
What is at issue in the question of preaching at a funeral is clearly not that any mention of the person who has died or of the person’s attributes and accomplishments be avoided by the homilist. Rather, it is that such references be consistent with the spirit of the liturgy and find a proper context within the homily.
At the funeral of a Christian, the homily should be genuinely Eucharistic, a statement of praise and thanks to God. It should invite the person’s family and friends to simultaneously hold on the values and lessons of this person’s life, entrust the person’s final destiny into the hands of God, and remember the shortness and fragility of human life and of God’s invitation in Christ to live every moment fully and abundantly.
There are three approved contexts for a eulogy, words of remembrance, or tributes.
- The Vigil Service (Wake) of the deceased.
- At the grave-site or the funeral reception after the interment.
- In the Church prior to the liturgy, i.e. prior to reception of the body at the entrance to the Church.
The guidelines, issued by the Alberta and NWT Conference of Catholic Bishops, for the celebration of the sacraments with persons and families considering or opting for death by assisted suicide or euthanasia, can be seen on the diocesan website at www.calgarydiocese.ca under the Our Faith menu or call (403) 218-5500 for more information.
☩ Frederick Henry
St. John Paul II taught us how to live and taught us how to die.
The teaching of Pope John Paul II about sickness and death came not only from his speeches, and encyclicals. In the face of injury, suffering, hospitalization, illness and dying, he taught us that to understand death with dignity, first accept the dignity of life. Human dignity is an undeserved gift, not an earned status. The dignity of life springs from its source. We come to be by the loving action of God the Creator. “What is man that you are mindful of him, and the son of man that you care for him? You have made him little less than a god, and crown him with glory and honour” [Psalm 8:5]. The dignity of life is beyond price. We have been ransomed not with perishable things such as silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ.
Nevertheless, he explained that: “The church knows that the moment of death is always accompanied by particularly intense human sentiments: an earthy life is ending, the emotional, generational, and social ties that are part of the person’s inner self are dissolving; people who are dying and those who assist them are aware of the conflict between hope in immortality and the unknown which troubles even the most enlightened minds. The church lifts her voice so that the dying are not offended but are given every loving care and are not left alone as they prepare to cross the threshold of time to enter eternity” [Academy of Life, 1999].
There are many ethical questions and issues surrounding suffering and death. As Catholics, there are several foundational principles and practices. I want to cite three of them:
- Any action or omission which of itself or by intention causes or hastens death is a grave violation of the commandment: “You shall not kill.”
- We hold firmly that, while every person has a fundamental right to normal care and treatment, he or she has also the right to refuse procedures or treatments considered extraordinary or disproportionate; that is, overly burdensome, painful or of dubious effectiveness in restoring health. Likewise, the individual has the right to discontinue treatment under the same conditions.
- For those in the final stages of a terminal illness, the church is a strong advocate for palliative care. We applaud the progress that has been made in the field of pain alleviation and management. While acknowledging the human and redemptive value of suffering, we also recognize our common human responsibility to bring relief to suffering whenever possible. Thus in palliative care it is always legitimate to administer medication in doses adequate to control the pain, even if it is foreseen that death will be hastened, so long as the intent is to alleviate the pain and not to hasten death.
Willem Joacbus Cardinal Eijk, Archbishop of Utrecht in the Netherlands, recently told the Canadian Bishops that when confronted with people who say they want euthanasia or assistance in suicide, “look behind the question.”
A request for euthanasia or assisted suicide does not necessarily or directly contain a wish to die or for the termination of life. The question being asked is, “How can I (continue to) live with dignity in this situation?”
Experience teaches that a request for the termination of life is often prompted by fear for unbearable pain and by an aversion to personal humiliation. The emphasis is usually on physical pain. However, research shows that in only 10% of the cases is pain the only reason for a request for the termination of life. The primary problem is the preserving self-respect and human dignity. Put in general terms, the request for euthanasia or assisted suicide seems above all to be a request for help and relief. That is why it is very important to speak with the other person and discover with him the source of his request.
True pastoral care implies that the pastor leads people entrusted to his care to the truth, ultimately found only in Jesus Christ, Who is “the way, the truth and life” [John 14,6].
For Catholics, in order to receive the sacraments, one must have the proper disposition. The deepest meaning of receiving sacraments is that man entrusts himself to God’s loving mercy. Consciously and freely choosing euthanasia or assisted suicide implies that one is not entrusting oneself to God’s mercy, but is rather controlling the conclusion of one’s own life. Such a position is incompatible with the surrender to God’s loving mercy and it denies, so to speak, the strength that is inherent in the sacraments. Through the sacraments one participates in the suffering, the death and the Resurrection of Jesus and in the unconditional “yes” He spoke to His Father.
From this perspective, it is impossible to comply with a request for the sacraments when someone has planned to end his life or to have it ended actively. Such a person does not have the proper disposition.
Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide are not a “solution” to suffering, but an elimination of the suffering human being. It is therefore the confirmation of despair, of the overwhelming feeling that all suffering can only end when the human person himself ceases to be. If the pastoral caregiver were to support the request for euthanasia, he would be capitulating to despair, which is contrary to the hope alive within him which he wants to proclaim. If the Church’s minister were out of a false of compassion accede to such a request it would constitute an enormous situation of scandal and denial of the truth, “You shall not kill.”
In a Letter to the Elderly in 1999, St. John Paul II shared his faith in these words: “It is wonderful to be able to give oneself to the very end for the sake of the kingdom of God. At the same time, I find great peace in thinking of the time when the Lord will call me: from life to life… And so I often find myself saying, with no trace of melancholy, a prayer recited by priests after the celebration of the Eucharist: At the hour of my death, call me and bid me come to you. This is the prayer of Christian hope.”
☩ Frederick Henry
There is story told about passengers on a small commuter plane who are waiting for their flight to leave. They’re getting a little impatient, but the airport staff has assured them that the pilots will be there soon, and the flight will take off immediately after their arrival. The entrance opens, and two men dressed in pilots’ uniforms walk up the aisle – both are wearing dark glasses, one is using a seeing-eye dog, and the other is tapping his way up the aisle with a cane. Nervous laughter spreads through the cabin; but the men enter the cockpit, the door closes, and the engines start up. The passengers begin glancing nervously around, searching for some sign that this is just a little practical joke. None is forthcoming.
Soon the plane is moving faster and faster down the runway, and people at the windows realize that they’re headed straight for the water at the edge of the airport runway. As it begins to look as though the plane will never take off, that it will plow into the water, panicked screams fill the cabin – but at that moment, the plane lifts smoothly into the air.
The passengers relax and laugh a little sheepishly, and soon they have all retreated into their magazines, secure in the knowledge that the plane is in good hands. Up in the cockpit, the co-pilot turns to the pilot and says, “You know, Bob, one of these days, they’re going to scream too late, and we’re all gonna die.”
Here are three examples of screams that I have heard recently:
1. On the campaign trail for the Progressive Conservative leadership, Jason Kenney blasted David Eggen, the Minister of Education for “lobbing rhetorical bombs” at the schools which are run by the Baptist Christian Education Society. Kenney suggested that the minister and his officials should not seek conflict in the media. According to the CBC, “If they have a concern or issue with individual schools, they should discretely and with respect and civility sit down and try to find a solution.”
The Baptist Christian Education Society’s board chair, Spruce Grove pastor Brian Coldwell, stated in August that the board’s two schools, which have a total of about 200 students, will not permit gay/straight alliances nor provide “polygender washrooms.”
There is no evidence that these Christian schools have a serious bullying problem, but a government problem – the imposition of the rainbow ideology where it doesn’t fit. Eggen responded in the media that he would “not rule out” cutting funding to the schools, which comprises about 70 percent of the private schools’ instructional revenue.
It’s ironic that a government committed to wiping out “bullying” is going to do so by being a bully, i.e. by repeatedly and habitually using force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively dominate others. This is an imbalance of social and economic power being used to facilitate a unwelcomed social re-engineering agenda.
2. At World Youth Day in Krakow, Pope Francis screamed: “There are genuine forms of ideological colonization taking place. And one of these I will call it clearly by its name – is [the ideology of] ‘gender’. Today children – children! – are taught in school that everyone can choose his or her sex. Why are they teaching this? …In a conversation with Pope Benedict, who is in good health and very perceptive, he said to me: ‘Holiness, this is the age of sin against God the Creator.’”
3. Finally, a “silent scream,” as it was not heard by the politically correct establishment, ostensibly because it questions many of the LGBTQ orthodoxies.
Sexuality and Gender published in August by a couple of scientific heavyweights, Dr. Lawrence Mayer and Dr. Paul McHugh, examined nearly 200 peer-reviewed studies in sexual orientation and gender identity. Four of the report’s most important conclusions are:
- The belief that sexual orientation is an innate, biologically fixed human property –“that people are born that way”– is not supported by scientific evidence.
- The hypothesis that gender identity is an innate, fixed human property independent of biological sex – so that a person might be “a man trapped in a woman’s body” or “a woman trapped in a man’s body”– is not supported by scientific evidence.
- Only a minority of children who express gender-atypical thoughts or behaviour will continue to do so into adolescence or adulthood. There is no evidence that all such children should be encouraged to become transgender, much less subjected to hormone treatments or surgery.
- Non-heterosexual and transgender people have higher rates of mental health problems (anxiety, depression, suicide), as well as behavioural and social problems (substance abuse, intimate partner violence), than the general population. Discrimination alone does not account for the entire disparity.
“You know, Bob, one of these days, they’re going to scream too late, and we’re all gonna die.”
☩ Frederick Henry